HIS (Herstellerinitiative Software, German for 'OEM software initiative') is an interest group consisting of the car manufacturers Audi, BMW, Daimler AG, Porsche and Volkswagen.
Innovation in modern vehicles is to a great extent realized by software in electronic control units. Therefore, vehicle manufacturers must extend their competence in the basics and methods of software design and quality assurance for microprocessor based control units. This has motivated the companies mentioned before to bundle their activities as long as they are not relevant for competition.
HIS only works on topics which can be handled within a timeframe of up to 2 years. The common goal is to achieve and use joint standards, either by supporting standardization bodies, or where they do not exist, by developing standards.
Work is performed in working groups which are established when needed. Significant work has been performed e.g. in the areas of standard software modules, process maturity levels, software test, software tools and programming of control units.
Mutations in Escherichia coli's analogous gene, hisB allows researchers to select only those individuals expressing the HIS3 gene included on a plasmid. The HIS3 gene is coupled to a certain promoter which can only be activated by successful binding of the relevant transcription factors. This is used in certain methods of bacterial two-hybrid screening to allow the survival of E. coli in which a desired protein-DNA or protein-protein interaction is taking place (Joung et al., 2000)
Joung, J. K., E. I. Ramm and C. O. Pabo (2000). "A bacterial two-hybrid selection system for studying protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(13): 7382-7.
A student or pupil is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution. In Britain until about 2012, underage schoolchildren were always referred to as "pupils", while those attending university are termed "students". In the USA, and more recently also in Britain, the term "student" is applied to both categories, no doubt due to US influence. In its widest use, student is used for anyone who is learning, including mid-career adults who are taking vocational education or returning to university, or younger 'researchers or artists learning from a more experienced (and usually older) colleague and mentor.
Education can be Government initiated and compulsory for students from the age of 6 to the age of 16.
Primary School (Primary 1 to 6)
Secondary School ( Secondary 1 to 4 or 5)
Junior College (Junior College 1 to 2 - Optional)
All staff are volunteers, who fit work for the newspaper around their studies. The newspaper is distributed on a Tuesday and usually consists of 32 pages. It has a physical circulation of 4,000 copies per issue and is read by some 30,000 people in Edinburgh.
The Student started as a small weekly magazine, published by the Students' Representative Council. A typical, turn-of-the-century edition of The Student would open with a short biography of a notable person and an editorial. The remaining content largely comprised notes from various societies, sports results, poetry and literary reviews, and profiles of newly appointed lecturers. The magazine was supported by advertising, but cost two pence.
As an employee of Guinness, a progressive agro-chemical business, Gosset applied his statistical knowledge – both in the brewery and on the farm – to the selection of the best yielding varieties of barley. Gosset acquired that knowledge by study, by trial and error, and by spending two terms in 1906–1907 in the biometrical laboratory of Karl Pearson. Gosset and Pearson had a good relationship. Pearson helped Gosset with the mathematics of his papers, including the 1908 papers, but had little appreciation of their importance. The papers addressed the brewer's concern with small samples; biometricians like Pearson, on the other hand, typically had hundreds of observations and saw no urgency in developing small-sample methods.